Tag Archive: COOP plans

Two new CO-OP plans face dreaded adverse selection death spiral

Before individual health insurers were prohibited from medically underwriting applicants for coverage one year ago this month, many faced the dreaded adverse selection death spiral and may have gone under without the intervention of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. That’s when a health insurer ends up with less healthy people in its risk pool and must raise premium rates and cost sharing to cover their higher medical utilization costs. Those higher premiums in turn make the plan less able to attract new members and premium dollars to cover those rising costs. Once the adverse selection death spiral becomes established, it’s very difficult to reverse course. It’s the health insurance equivalent of a cosmic black hole.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act sought to mitigate the death spiral by outlawing medical underwriting in individual health insurance, subsidizing premiums for low and moderate income households, creating single state risk pools and establishing reinsurance and risk adjustment programs to mitigate adverse selection risk.

But for some new health plans in the post-ACA world, adverse selection can occur right out of the gate if they can’t coordinate premium rates and cost sharing with medical utilization. Exhibit A is a couple of CO-OP (Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan) health insurers established under Section 1322 of the Affordable Care Act. Since CO-OP plans are new players in those states in which they operate, they face the temptation to set premiums at low levels in order to gain market share against the established health plan issuers.

Two days before Christmas, Iowa insurance regulators went to court to place Iowa and Nebraska-licensed CoOportunity Health in rehabilitation, citing “extremely high healthcare utilization.” The week before, the federal government declined CoOportunity Health additional loan funding, resulting in CoOportunity being deemed in hazardous financial condition and placed under the supervision of the Iowa Insurance Division. (Links related to the rehabilitation order here.) (Update 1/24/15: Iowa insurance commissioner initiates insolvency proceedings against CoOportunity.)

Meanwhile in Minnesota, another CO-OP plan, PreferredOne, sharply increased premium rates and pulled out of that state’s health benefit exchange marketplace for plan year 2015 despite a bang up 2014 in which it captured a majority of the 55,000 new exchange enrollees, according to this Bloomberg Businessweek story. Same problem as in Iowa with CoOportunity Health: premiums set too low relative to medical utilization.


Need a speaker or webinar presenter on the Affordable Care Act and the outlook for health care reform? Contact Pilot Healthcare Strategies Principal Fred Pilot by email fpilot@pilothealthstrategies.com or call 530-295-1473. 

Credit unions partner with COOP plan in two Midwestern states

In two Midwestern states with a tradition of consumer cooperatives, credit unions will help enroll members in an Iowa-based consumer operated and oriented (CO-OP) health plan, CoOportunity Health, that will offer plans on the states’ health benefit exchange marketplaces. According to the CreditUnionTimes, CoOportunity Health will offer coverage in Iowa, which will operate a state partnership exchange with the federal government, and Nebraska, which has opted for a federally operated exchange. Group Benefits Ltd. will serve as the preferred broker, according to the story.

This is a noteworthy development because it shows interstate cooperation and the innovative use of an established and trusted distribution channel to drive enrollment in the exchange marketplace. It could also serve as a template for health plans to market across state lines via “health care choice compacts” starting in January, 2016 as authorized by Section 1333(a) of the Affordable Care Act. (The ACA specifies implementing regulations be issued by July 1, 2013, but the rules have not yet been promulgated). It could also pave the way for state exchanges to combine into “regional or other interstate exchanges” subject to approval by the participating states and the federal Department of Health and Human Services under ACA Section 1311(f).


Need a speaker or webinar presenter on the Affordable Care Act and the outlook for health care reform? Contact Pilot Healthcare Strategies Principal Fred Pilot by email fpilot@pilothealthstrategies.com or call 530-295-1473. 

Market forces marshal as start of exchange marketplace draws nearer

The rest of this year and next will reveal in greater detail how competing market forces under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) play out in the individual and small group market segments.  Health plans are making their opening gambit by warning in a Wall Street Journal story published this week that premiums will rise in response to new market rules that take effect in January 2014 requiring them to offer specified categories of benefits and use community-based rating instead of medical underwriting.

The PPACA’s managed competition scheme for these market segments will create countervailing downward pressure in addition to the reinsurance and risk adjustment mechanisms mentioned in the WSJ story to offset pressure for higher rates to account for taking on higher risk populations under community rating.  That scheme is based on concentrating much of the market in state health benefit exchanges that will aggregate the purchasing power of individuals and small businesses, spurred along in the individual segment with generous income tax subsidies for those with adjusted gross incomes at 400 percent and lower of the federal poverty level.  Small employers won’t get these subsidies (enhanced income tax credits will be available for very small, low wage employers) but would be able to pool their market power into one large purchasing entity, the exchanges’ Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP).

The test of that aggregated market power will begin over the next few months in about a half dozen states where the exchanges have opted to actively screen and select which plans can participate in their individual and SHOP marketplaces.  Of these, the most illustrative market is the nation’s largest health insurance market — California — where that state’s exchange, Covered California, has established standardized benefit designs and cost sharing levels for plans it will offer.  Covered California is utilizing a competitive bidding and negotiation process based on these standard designs that provides incentive to plans to moderate premiums.

Also part of the PPACA managed competition model and designed to boost competition to exert downward pressure on premiums are the large Multi-State Plans administered by the federal Office of Personnel Management.  Multi-State Plans will also be sold on the state exchange marketplaces, initially available in 60 percent of the states once introduced.  The PPACA mandates at least two Multi-State Plans be offered in each state exchange and be available in all state exchanges by 2017.  Plus the PPACA allows cooperative health plans owned and operated by consumers to compete in the exchange marketplaces with investor-owned commercial health plans.


Need a speaker or webinar presenter on the Affordable Care Act and the outlook for health care reform? Contact Pilot Healthcare Strategies Principal Fred Pilot by email fpilot@pilothealthstrategies.com or call 530-295-1473. 

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